Global hop marketA local alternative to mass beer suggested by independent brewers has been successful and is now altering the global market. Beer is becoming more diversified, so transnational companies have to accept the new game rules and to switch focus to young and fast growing markets. All these processes increased the demand for aroma and bitter hop as well as their acreage expansion on two continents. However now there appeared a downward trend of alcohol consumption in the world, so even special sorts can soon turn to be sufficient. In this connection the dynamic American hop market is already facing some problems. EU hop producers have become more cautious, they are not racing to exceed the demand and look forward with more confidence, judging by the contract terms.
Hop Market in RussiaGermany still dominates the Russian market, yet over the recent two years one has been able observe a continuous success of Czech hop suppliers. Their expansion and growing popularity of hops from the United States became the drivers of supplies growth in 2016 despite the preceding modest harvest crop in the EU, as well as the factor of relative stability in 2017. In this connection, in 2017, the ratio of the varieties continued to shift towards the aroma ones, and the supplies of Magnum hop and other alpha varieties were reduced. However, the import of bitter hop pellets is partially replaced by extracts, especially from the major beer manufacturers. Total volumes of alpha acid supplies, according to our estimation, decreased by approximately 5% and returned to the level of 2015. Barth Haas Group continues dominating the hop products market; HVG also increased its weight. At the same time, Morris Hanbury significantly reduced the supplies in 2017.
10+1 trends of Russian beer market 2015-2017Despite of the moderately negative prognoses for 2017, the beer market can be stabilized soon. Yet the years of the negative dynamics have resulted in marketing being limited just to “optimization” and the art of balancing between price and volumes. Bigger supermarkets share means stronger trade marketing. These processes are connected to the majority of the described trends. At the same time, the federal brands inflation leads to searching for new tastes, sales channels and contact formats that expand the product range and diversify the beer market, but do not imply a substantial volume increase. Let us enumerate and further discuss the ten trends of the beer market we can see in 2015-2017 as well as the major event of 2017.
Beer market of Ukraine 2017In the first half of 2017, the Ukrainian beer market goes on decreasing slowly. Yet, the companies manage to compensate their lost volumes by raising prices and improving the sales structures. This results in the mid price market segment reduction while the sales of premium brands are rising. These processes are connected to position strengthening of companies Carlsberg Group and Oasis and the market share reduction of Obolon. Most of the novelties by the market leaders belong to craft or hard lemon categories.
Beer market of Russia 2016: PET goes to draftThe beer market of Russia was warmed up by the hot summer, but the preparation for large volume PET prohibition has already impacted it negatively. The year was successful for Efes, MBC and regional producers; Carlsberg’s positions were virtually stable but AB InBev and Heineken lost a part of market share having focused on the sales profitability. The dynamics of big brands was determined by how much the companies were willing to keep the prices down or by their promotional activity. In this context the economy segment of the beer market and sales of inexpensive draft beer were increasing. The premium segment started shrinking due to license brands migrating to the mainstream segment.
Review of Russian Beer Market: Research of Euromonitor International
According to preliminary data of the company “Euromonitor International”, the beer market in Russia decreased by 8% in 2015, reaching the figure of 8.2 billion liters. The difficult situation in the country’s economy continued negatively affecting the consumer purchasing power, prompting consumers to choose cheaper goods, to reduce purchase frequency, or to refuse the purchase altogether. The problematic situation in the domestic beer market can also be confirmed by the fact that over the past two years ten large breweries were closed down in Russia, including two brewing plants belonging to the beer market leader – “Pivovarennaya Kompaniya “Baltika” (Baltika Breweries)” LLC (Saint-Petersburg).
In 2015, for the first time in many years, the excise tax on beer remained unchanged. However, the significant weakening of the ruble, which took place during 2015, served as a counterweight to the relative tax ‘relief’ – it did not leave the beer industry unaffected and had an impact on the average beer price increase, despite beer of local production making up for the largest part of the market.
Activity in the legislative process also played a significant role in the past year, in particular the ongoing discussions on prohibition of PET containers. In the summer of 2014 the Russian State Duma passed a bill in the first reading on phasing out retail sale of alcohol in PET bottles, which mainly involves sales of beer in big plastic bottles. In the original version of the bill, the prohibition of sales was to come into effect in January 2015 for alcoholic beverages with ethanol content over 6% in PET containers over 1.5 liters, in July 2015 for alcoholic beverages with alcohol content over 5% in plastic bottles larger than 1 liter, and at the beginning of 2016 for products with alcohol content over 4% in bottles over 0.5 liters. However, in early 2015 the law did not enter into force, and in April of the same year the government voiced the idea of limiting the bottling of alcoholic beverages in PET containers larger than 1.5 liters starting with July 2016, followed by a gradual reduction of the permitted volume to 0.5 liters. Consensus on solving said issue has still not been found, but regardless, the ongoing activity serves as a signal for producers that sooner or later PET containers will no longer be used for alcoholic beverage bottling.
A strong reaction among the players of the beer market in 2015 was also caused by a bill on introducing the Unified State Automated Information System (EGAIS) on January 1, 2016. Small breweries, producing beer in volumes less than 300 thousand decaliters per year, were especially heavily affected by the matter, since according to the bill such breweries will be exempt from the obligation to implement the EGAIS in production, but will be required to introduce it for storage and distribution of the product. While for major beer producers the costs of implementing the EGAIS may not be very significant, when it comes to smaller breweries, with the company’s turnover being comparable to the expenses on implementation of the system, it will bring them to the edge of survival. Those changes could lead to the segment of small breweries, which specialize, among others, on craft brewing that is rapidly gaining popularity, being ruined on the stage of development. However, at the end of February 2016 the State Duma announced the preparation of a bill exempting small breweries from the obligation to join and implement the EGAIS.
As practice shows, in times of crisis consumer markets are prone to consolidate in favor of big market players. The tendency is caused by the fact that major players are more resistant to market changes due to usually high brand awareness as well as impressive working capital. Nevertheless, the situation in the Russian beer market is not as unambiguous; over the past few years the total share of the major market players was decreasing. While in 2012 the overall share of the leading four (“Baltika”, “Moscow Efes Brewery” CJSC, “United Heineken Breweries” LLC, and “Sun InBev” OJSC) almost reached 78% in physical terms, in 2015 the total share of these companies decreased to 72%.
While the share of international companies was decreasing, the share of regional breweries was growing along with an increase in the number of small breweries. While large international companies were forced to carry out restructuring, including closing down plants, regional beer plants were investing in upgrades and growth of production capacity. And while legislative initiatives at the federal level had a significant negative impact on the development of beer industry as a whole, local and regional authorities were contributing to the development of regional breweries. Said trend is explained by the fact that in difficult economic realities excise tax revenue becomes an important regional budget item and, therefore, the government’s interest. Another distinctive feature of regional players is that a significant share of beer sales is accounted for by the bottling segment and mainly moves through specialized beer retail. Particular attention should be paid to the fact that specialized beer retail, which has been demonstrating steady growth rates in the recent years, is expanding not only through increasing sales outlets, but also through broadening supply and aiming to form a unique assortment. It leads to regional players getting on the food shelves in their regions and beyond, due to specialized beer retail.
The positive dynamics of small breweries against the overall market decline are also due to the ongoing growth of interest in the craft beer segment. Development in the segment is confirmed by the fact that with the continuous and rapid decrease in the light beer (lager) segment, the segment of dark beer (craft beer often being classified as such) showed positive growth – even though insignificant, at 1% - in physical terms. Russian consumers have been getting increasingly sophisticated in the matter of beer choice in the recent years, and have been favoring craft alternatives over mainstream brands, the former having individuality and uniqueness. The average price of craft beer is normally higher than the price of beer of traditional, well-known brands, since craft brewing has a smaller scale and thus higher costs due to lacking economies of scale. However, even despite that more and more consumers are inclined to consume craft alternatives, thus emphasizing their taste individuality. The constantly growing interest towards craft beer came to us from the Western world, and with the constant market fall over the recent years, this trend, albeit not strongly expressed, has positive influence on the beer market dynamics.
The current crisis situation, along with increasing prices, decreasing disposable household incomes and a number of legislative initiatives addressed to the beer market, suggests an uncertain future and does not promise prospects too bright for the beer market. According to preliminary estimations of the company “Euromonitor International”, in 2015–2020 the compound annual growth rate in the beer market will amount to -1.5% in real terms.
The question of PET container ban for alcoholic beverage bottling is still open. However, the legislative activity around it indicates that in the near future the law will probably be passed, and that will not leave beer manufacturers unaffected, given the fact that at the moment almost 50% of the retail beer market is products in PET.
Regarding the Unified State Automated Information System, according to a number of sources it has already had numerous failures despite having recently been implemented. What gives some hope is the fact that the government announced an upcoming bill that would free small brewing companies from the obligation to implement the EGAIS. If said law comes into force, it will ease the work for the smaller players and will give them the opportunity to develop further.
As for regional breweries – both large and small – oriented to craft production, they will continue to develop and will partly negate the ongoing beer market decline. If regional authorities continue supporting local regional producers, which contribute to the budget through the excise tax, and smaller manufacturers are exempt from the additional costs associated with the EGAIS, it will create the opportunity to alleviate the overall negative outlook of the beer market.
18 May. 2016