The beer market dynamics in Russia is approaching zero, yet major brewers are divided into those who developed considerably in 2017 and those who considerably reduced their volumes. For instance, company Efes has managed to substantially extend their sales due to restrained pricing policy and activity in the modern trade. Heineken has also demonstrated an excellent performance promoted by significant increase of advertisement budgets launching a non-alcohol sort of the title brand and unusual activity in the economy market segment. Carlsberg and AB InBev have been focusing on margins and lost a market share of their inexpensive brands. Serious dependence on PET package and mass enthusiasm about Zhigulevskoe have negatively impacted the most of big regional brewers, that have been for the first time pressed by the leaders in the key sales channels, especially in Volga and Central regions. In the small business there has been a noticeable slowdown in appearing of new restaurant breweries, yet the number of craft breweries has been growing rapidly. In 2018, the beer market is likely to grow a little, while the share of AB InBev Efes may decrease due to the integration. ...
“Catalogue of Russian Beer Producers 2018” includes 1070 businesses ranging from large subsidiaries of international companies to rather small restaurant and craft microbreweries.The catalogue includes 32 large breweries, 75 regional breweries, 693 industrial mini- and microbreweries as well as 270 restaurant breweries. ...
Global hop marketA local alternative to mass beer suggested by independent brewers has been successful and is now altering the global market. Beer is becoming more diversified, so transnational companies have to accept the new game rules and to switch focus to young and fast growing markets. All these processes increased the demand for aroma and bitter hop as well as their acreage expansion on two continents. However now there appeared a downward trend of alcohol consumption in the world, so even special sorts can soon turn to be sufficient. In this connection the dynamic American hop market is already facing some problems. EU hop producers have become more cautious, they are not racing to exceed the demand and look forward with more confidence, judging by the contract terms.
Hop Market in RussiaGermany still dominates the Russian market, yet over the recent two years one has been able observe a continuous success of Czech hop suppliers. Their expansion and growing popularity of hops from the United States became the drivers of supplies growth in 2016 despite the preceding modest harvest crop in the EU, as well as the factor of relative stability in 2017. In this connection, in 2017, the ratio of the varieties continued to shift towards the aroma ones, and the supplies of Magnum hop and other alpha varieties were reduced. However, the import of bitter hop pellets is partially replaced by extracts, especially from the major beer manufacturers. Total volumes of alpha acid supplies, according to our estimation, decreased by approximately 5% and returned to the level of 2015. Barth Haas Group continues dominating the hop products market; HVG also increased its weight. At the same time, Morris Hanbury significantly reduced the supplies in 2017.
4-2014 Abbey beer
Beer and monastic Orders
Benedictine roots of beer brands
Brewers-Benedictines in Germany
The Trappist beer
Benedictine Brewers in Europe and the USA
Mendicant monks on labels…
… and real monks
Abbey, but not Catholic?
From pre-Christian times to late Middle Ages perhaps any peasant on the territory of modern Europe was able to cook fermented drink from sprouted grain - a prototype of modern ale. This drink was an important addition to the ration, especially in winter time, and was brewed according to a great number of recipes. But later domestic brewing was forced out by artisan brewers and monasteries. What is more, specifically abbey beer became "branded", distinguished from the varied mass of products of different households and Medieval HoReCa that were sometimes even dangerous to drink.
In early Middle Ages incipient beer brewing was a science, in which it was still necessary to find correct decisions and systematize experience. Only the clergy could do it, because there was nobody else - peasants and artisans could not read. Besides, monks were able to choose the best from a great number of beer recipes, because despite ascribed dogmatism, they were more used to dissert upon rightfulness of decisions than other social classes.
Monasteries were the centers of knowledge accumulation that were a sum of opinions and quotations – like a Google of Middle Ages, according to an expression of philosopher B. Groys. Church school of Scholasticism assisted the study of all this experience, and studying Aristotelian logic developed critical thinking. In addition, as well as in a modern scientific environment, there was an experience exchange with brothers from other monasteries that advantageously distinguished monks from artisan brewers.
Then how did it happen that today less than a hundred abbey breweries operate in all of Europe, and their role at the beer market is very insignificant from the point of view of sales share? In particular, remaining breweries at Catholic monasteries are a weak echo of their past and in no way remind about their dominance at the beer market. There were several reasons for it.
At first survivor abbey breweries were destroyed or changed owners under the influence of powerful motion of Protestant Reformation and the Thirty Years’ War, which limited the role of Catholicism in Europe.
Thus, peasants, warmed up by Christian ideas of Reformation, and experiencing the burden of constantly growing duties, started setting up generally fair claims to reduce taxes, including for the church, and to abolish serfdom. The reaction of feudal lords was inadequate which triggered Peasant war, continuing 1524-1526, mainly in the southern regions of Germany. However the revolt was severely suppressed and one of its sad results was devastation of many monasteries.
Thirty Years’ War 1618-1648 was a more extensive ordeal as it aimed the Holy Roman Empire itself and virtually divided Europe by the religious affiliation. The losses of civil population and economy were vast, especially on the territory of Germany. And again monasteries with their stocks and households became an easy prey for soldiers and they were ravaged during the attacks.
The secularization* of church property by Napoleon and his allies in 1803 that resulted in destruction of church’s leading role in Europe, including in the field of brewing was still another disaster for Catholics. Most abbey breweries were "resocialized" too, although some of them were later returned one way or another into possession of church.
* Secularization withdrawal of something from the church property and transferring it into the civil property
Finally, with Renaissance and subsequent bloom of natural sciences, brewing went out on a qualitatively new level; the monasteries could no longer house it.
Today we observe a new wave of revival of abbey brewing, connected with interest to piece products, and beer spiritual and historical background. Not the last role is played by a desire to help a monastery financially in its existence and development.
Interest in abbey beer is used by commercial brewing companies as much as possible. Although up to a hundred monasteries are involved in brewing one way or another, in the total sales of beer with monasterial attributes, brands that do not have a direct relation to church undoubtedly prevail.
Catholicism is quantitatively the largest religious trend in Christianity that is followed by about 1.2 billion of people. A key role at the beer market was played by Catholic monastic orders that have different rules and ideology. Therefore their contribution to the history of brewing is qualitatively different.
Basic ideas that distinguish two largest subdivisions of Catholicism are based on a decision: 1) achieving God through labour - for the monks of Benedictine orders; and 2) achieving God through poverty - for mendicant orders. Therefore it is fully natural that a key role in development of brewing technology was played by the branch of Benedictine rule. They also form the basis for the modern abbey brewing today. But bright characters of monks on packing well known to the beer lovers almost all belong to mendicant orders.
Apparently, due to presence of a lot real breweries, the attributes of orders of Benedictine rule attract less attention of marketing specialists than characters and images of mendicant orders.
Most probably, the next chapter will tell about not all breweries at Catholic monasteries, as on the first place their number is constantly growing. Brewing is traditional and, as it turned out, effective economic activity for the present day monks.
Besides, we find very important one Benedictine’s argument that “brewery searches the way to the hearts of those who have not come to the religion”, because a brewing serves as a meeting point for wandsmen and laymen. And recently the Catholic church has been seeking more openness and participation in the society life, thus, such links are valuable. That is why, in Catholic communities, where it is appropriate, all over the world one should expect upspring of a lot of breweries.
Let’s look at the structure of orders, breweries and abbey brands in more detail...
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