Analysis of beer market in India
- Indian beer market in figures
- Who and how drinks beer in India
- Expensive and hard-to-get
- Premarital ties
- Religion and philosophy
- 29 markets with their own rules
- Seasonal factor
- Raw material base
- Foreign trade
- Leading companies
- United Breweries (Heineken)
- SABMiller India
- Carlsberg India
- Mohan Meakin
- SOM Distilleries and Breweries
- Molson Coors (Cobra Beer)
- AB InBev
- Indian craft
The beer market of Russia: from transnational to national
- The results of the first half of 2015
- Where does beer flow?
- Modern trade
- Specialized retail
- Trends on Russian beer market
- Where do the market leaders move?
- Carlsberg Group
- Efes Breweries International
- AB InBev
Beer keg market
- Kegs in brief
- Leaders in keg production
- World draft beer market
- Secondary market
- Keg price
- Draft beer and keg market in Russia
- Market structure
- Analysis of keg import to Russia
- Conditions for craft beer expansion
- Niche for craft beer in Russia
- How many small brewers are there in Russia?
- “Small” does not equal “craft”
What is left after foam collapse? Changes on the beer market in Russia 2000-2014
- Beer market in 2014
- Economy vs state regulation
- Recession demographics
- More money, more beer?
- Motives for beer consumption
- Who drinks, what is drunk
- "Collective alcoholic"
- Decline of beer status in Russia
- Beer during crisis
- Money for beer
- Unconcerned unemployed
- Beer and labor
Barley-based low-gluten beer had ‘substantial’ hordein protein levels, study
Coeliac disease (CD) - suffered by around one per cent of populations worldwide - is exacerbated by the intake of prolamins present in wheat, rye, barley, and (for some people) oats, and the only treatment for CD is a life-long, gluten-free diet.
Moreover, up to 50 per cent of adults remain undiagnosed, or do not display overt symptoms, according to Catassi et al. (1994) and Fowell et al (2006).
The disease causes damage to the small intestinal villi, reducing nutrient absorption and impacting health; clinical symptoms of CD include fatigue, diarrhea, weight loss, anemia and neurological disorders, while research suggests it can heighten cancer risk.
Cograve et al. used mass spectrometric assay (an analytical technique) to characterise hordeins (toxic peptides) originating from hordeum vulgare or the cereal barley, used to produce malt for brewing.
These were present in (1) purified hordein preparations (2) wort (the liquid extracted from the mashing process during beer production) and (3) beer itself - where the current study included tests on 60 commercially available beers.
"There has been some speculation about the presence of and/or amount of gluten present in beers," the scientists wrote.
They added that a recent report examining gluten level in commercial beers found that the gluten content of 50 per cent of beers tested contained less than Codex Alimentarius Standard levels (to be labelled 'gluten free') of 20 ppm (mg/kg) gluten.
But in this study, the scientists found that all barley-based beers contained hordein, and that for beers 57 and 59 (which they did not name) classified as low gluten (<10 ppm), the relative hordein content was not dissimilar to the average hordein content "across the range of beers tested".
Meanwhile, a number of beers tested, despite lacking a defined gluten status, showed lower than average gluten content.
Secondly, Cograve et al. claimed to have developed a "robust and sensitive quantification methodology for the measurement o hordein (gluten) in beer".
In conclusion, no hordeins were detected in gluten-free beers analysed, but discussing the significance of their results, the scientists wrote:
"Significantly, both barley-based low-gluten beers tested, in which the hordein concentration is reduced by proprietary processing steps during brewing (to reduce the concentration in the final beer product) had substantial levels of one or more hordein proteins".