Beer market of Russia 2016: PET goes to draftThe beer market of Russia was warmed up by the hot summer, but the preparation for large volume PET prohibition has already impacted it negatively. The year was successful for Efes, MBC and regional producers; Carlsberg’s positions were virtually stable but AB InBev and Heineken lost a part of market share having focused on the sales profitability. The dynamics of big brands was determined by how much the companies were willing to keep the prices down or by their promotional activity. In this context the economy segment of the beer market and sales of inexpensive draft beer were increasing. The premium segment started shrinking due to license brands migrating to the mainstream segment.
Beer market of Vietnam: “Young tiger”Vietnam is one of the few big beer markets that continue to grow steadily. The beer popularity results from its low price, street consumption culture, and social motives. The outlooks of beer market as well as the Vietnamese economy inspire optimism, though the country is heavily dependent on export of goods. The state regulation can be called liberal, but the key risk for brewers is harbored in intensive rising of excise. Within TOP-4 there are two leaders, Sabeco and Heineken that grow at the fastest rates. The first company effectively employs its capacities, the second one focuses on marketing technologies. Almost 80% of the market belongs to century-old brands, yet the middle class and the youth are shifting their interest toward international premium that is growing taking share from the mainstream.
Analysis of beer market in China (on Russian)
Beer market of Ukraine: big three losing weightIn 2016, fast increase of excises and resulting price spike stood in the way of the beer market stabilization. Most of competition (as well as mass sorts) moved to the economy segment of the market. The biggest losses were incurred by the leading three, especially Obolon, which again experienced pressure after reallocation of Efes market share. However, one should already speak of TOP-4. Group Oasis CIS (PPB) became a strong player and competitor to transnational companies. Besides the net sales of many regional medium breweries look rather good and 16-fold cost reduction wholesale trade license for craft brewers opens up a possibility of rapid growth in 2017.
Barley-based low-gluten beer had ‘substantial’ hordein protein levels, study
Coeliac disease (CD) - suffered by around one per cent of populations worldwide - is exacerbated by the intake of prolamins present in wheat, rye, barley, and (for some people) oats, and the only treatment for CD is a life-long, gluten-free diet.
Moreover, up to 50 per cent of adults remain undiagnosed, or do not display overt symptoms, according to Catassi et al. (1994) and Fowell et al (2006).
The disease causes damage to the small intestinal villi, reducing nutrient absorption and impacting health; clinical symptoms of CD include fatigue, diarrhea, weight loss, anemia and neurological disorders, while research suggests it can heighten cancer risk.
Cograve et al. used mass spectrometric assay (an analytical technique) to characterise hordeins (toxic peptides) originating from hordeum vulgare or the cereal barley, used to produce malt for brewing.
These were present in (1) purified hordein preparations (2) wort (the liquid extracted from the mashing process during beer production) and (3) beer itself - where the current study included tests on 60 commercially available beers.
"There has been some speculation about the presence of and/or amount of gluten present in beers," the scientists wrote.
They added that a recent report examining gluten level in commercial beers found that the gluten content of 50 per cent of beers tested contained less than Codex Alimentarius Standard levels (to be labelled 'gluten free') of 20 ppm (mg/kg) gluten.
But in this study, the scientists found that all barley-based beers contained hordein, and that for beers 57 and 59 (which they did not name) classified as low gluten (<10 ppm), the relative hordein content was not dissimilar to the average hordein content "across the range of beers tested".
Meanwhile, a number of beers tested, despite lacking a defined gluten status, showed lower than average gluten content.
Secondly, Cograve et al. claimed to have developed a "robust and sensitive quantification methodology for the measurement o hordein (gluten) in beer".
In conclusion, no hordeins were detected in gluten-free beers analysed, but discussing the significance of their results, the scientists wrote:
"Significantly, both barley-based low-gluten beers tested, in which the hordein concentration is reduced by proprietary processing steps during brewing (to reduce the concentration in the final beer product) had substantial levels of one or more hordein proteins".
10 Jan. 2012